日本でどの程度報道されたか分からないのですが、Future of Life Instituteが核兵器禁止交渉に賛同する世界の科学者の連名公開書簡を3月27日(禁止条約交渉が始まった日）に発表しています。現在、3615名が連名しています。日本からはどのくらいでしょうか・・・
Over 3,000 Scientists Support UN Nuclear Ban Negotiations
Delegates from most UN member states are gathering in New York to negotiate a nuclear weapons ban, where they will also receive a letter of support that has been signed by thousands of scientists from around over 80 countries – including 28 Nobel Laureates and a former US Secretary of Defense. “Scientists bear a special responsibility for nuclear weapons, since it was scientists who invented them and discovered that their effects are even more horrific than first thought”, the letter explains.
The letter will be delivered at a ceremony at 1pm on Monday March 27 in the UN General Assembly Hall to Her Excellency Ms. Elayne Whyte Gómez from Costa Rica, who will preside over the negotiations.
Despite all the attention to nuclear terrorism and nuclear rogue states, one of the greatest threats from nuclear weapons has always been mishaps and accidents among the established nuclear nations. With political tensions and instability increasing, this threat is growing to alarming levels: “The probability of a nuclear calamity is higher today, I believe, that it was during the cold war,” according to former U.S. Secretary of Defense William J. Perry, who signed the letter.
“Nuclear weapons represent one of the biggest threats to our civilization. With the unpredictability of the current world situation, it is more important than ever to get negotiations about a ban on nuclear weapons on track, and to make these negotiations a truly global effort,” says neuroscience professor Edvard Moser from Norway, 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine.
Professor Wolfgang Ketterle from MIT, 2001 Nobel Laureate in Physics, agrees: “I see nuclear weapons as a real threat to the human race and we need an international consensus to reduce this threat.”
Currently, the US and Russia have about 14,000 nuclear weapons combined, many on hair-trigger alert and ready to be launched on minutes notice, even though a Pentagon report argued that a few hundred would suffice for rock-solid deterrence. Yet rather than trim their excess arsenals, the superpowers plan massive investments to replace their nuclear weapons by new destabilizing ones that are more lethal for a first strike attack.
“Unlike many of the world’s leaders I care deeply about the future of my grandchildren. Even the remote possibility of a nuclear war presents an unconscionable threat to their welfare. We must find a way to eliminate nuclear weapons,” says Sir Richard J. Roberts, 1993 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine.
“Most governments are frustrated that a small group of countries with a small fraction of the world’s population insist on retaining the right to ruin life on Earth for everyone else with nuclear weapons, ignoring their disarmament promises in the non-proliferation treaty”, says physics professor Max Tegmark from MIT, who helped organize the letter. “In South Africa, the minority in control of the unethical Apartheid system didn’t give it up spontaneously on their own initiative, but because they were pressured into doing so by the majority. Similarly, the minority in control of unethical nuclear weapons won’t give them up spontaneously on their own initiative, but only if they’re pressured into doing so by the majority of the world’s nations and citizens.”
The idea behind the proposed ban is to provide such pressure by stigmatizing nuclear weapons.
Beatrice Fihn, who helped launch the ban movement as Executive Director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, explains that such stigmatization made the landmine and cluster munitions bans succeed and can succeed again: “The market for landmines is pretty much extinct—nobody wants to produce them anymore because countries have banned and stigmatized them. Just a few years ago, the United States—who never signed the landmines treaty—announced that it’s basically complying with the treaty. If the world comes together in support of a nuclear ban, then nuclear weapons countries will likely follow suit, even if it doesn’t happen right away.”
Susi Snyder from from the Dutch “Don’t Bank on the Bomb” project explains:
“If you prohibit the production, possession, and use of these weapons and the assistance with doing those things, we’re setting a stage to also prohibit the financing of the weapons. And that’s one way that I believe the ban treaty is going to have a direct and concrete impact on the ongoing upgrades of existing nuclear arsenals, which are largely being carried out by private contractors.”
“Nuclear arms are the only weapons of mass destruction not yet prohibited by an international convention, even though they are the most destructive and indiscriminate weapons ever created”, the letter states, motivating a ban.
“The horror that happened at Hiroshima and Nagasaki should never be repeated. Nuclear weapons should be banned,” says Columbia University professor Martin Chalfie, 2008 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.
Norwegian neuroscience professor May-Britt Moser, a 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine, says, “In a world with increased aggression and decreasing diplomacy – the availability nuclear weapons is more dangerous than ever. Politicians are urged to ban nuclear weapons. The world today and future generations depend on that decision.”
Ariel Conn, Director of Media at Future of Life Institute, firstname.lastname@example.org, (415) 640-1780
Max Tegmark, Professor of Physics at MIT, President of Future of Life Institute, email@example.com,
Contact information for all the letter signatories is available on request from Ariel Conn.
The open letter, under embargo: https://futureoflife.org/nuclear-open-letter/
An Open Letter from Scientists in Support of the UN Nuclear Weapons Negotiations
Nuclear arms are the only weapons of mass destruction not yet prohibited by an international convention, even though they are the most destructive and indiscriminate weapons ever created. We scientists bear a special responsibility for nuclear weapons, since it was scientists who invented them and discovered that their effects are even more horrific than first thought. Individual explosions can obliterate cities, radioactive fallout can contaminate regions, and a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse may cause mayhem by frying electrical grids and electronics across a continent. The most horrible hazard is a nuclear-induced winter, in which the fires and smoke from as few as a thousand detonations might darken the atmosphere enough to trigger a global mini ice age with year-round winter-like conditions. This could cause a complete collapse of the global food system and apocalyptic unrest, potentially killing most people on Earth – even if the nuclear war involved only a small fraction of the roughly 14,000 nuclear weapons that today’s nine nuclear powers control. As Ronald Reagan said: “A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.”
Unfortunately, such a war is more likely than one may hope, because it can start by mistake, miscalculation or terrorist provocation. There is a steady stream of accidents and false alarms that could trigger all-out war, and relying on never-ending luck is not a sustainable strategy. Many nuclear powers have larger nuclear arsenals than needed for deterrence, yet prioritize making them more lethal over reducing them and the risk that they get used.
But there is also cause for optimism. On March 27 2017, an unprecedented process begins at the United Nations: most of the world’s nations convene to negotiate a ban on nuclear arms, to stigmatize them like biological and chemical weapons, with the ultimate goal of a world free of these weapons of mass destruction. We support this, and urge our national governments to do the same, because nuclear weapons threaten not merely those who have them, but all people on Earth.
To date, this letter has been signed by 2211 scientists (this does not imply endorsement by their organizations):
William J. Perry, mathematician, US Secretary of Defense 1994-97, AAAS fellow
Peter Ware Higgs University of Edinburgh, Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics, 2013 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Leon N. Cooper, Brown University, Professor of Science, 1972 Physics Nobel Laureate
Sheldon Glashow, Boston University, Professor of Physics & Mathematics, 1979 Physics Nobel Laureate
Wolfgang Ketterle, MIT, Professor of Physics, 2001 Physics Nobel Laureate
Edvard I. Moser, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Professor of Neuroscience, 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine
May-Britt Moser, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Professor of Neuroscience, 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine
David Gross, Kavil Institute For Theoretical Physics, Chancellor’s Chair Professor of Theoretical Physics
Leland Hartwell Arizona State University, Professor, 2001 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine
Jerome I. Friedman MIT, Emeritus Professor of Physics, 1990 Nobel Laureate in Physics 1990
Paul Greengard The Rockefeller University, Professor of Neuroscience, 2000 Nobel Laureate Physiology/Medicine, Member, National Academy of Sciences
Roy J. Glauber Harvard University, Professor of Physics, Emeritus, 2005 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Richard J. Roberts New England Biolabs, Chief Scientific Officer, 1993 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine
David Politzer Caltech, Professor of Physics, 2004 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Frank Wilczek MIT, Professor of Physics, 2004 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Jack Steinberger CERN, Physicist, 1988 Nobel Laureate in Physics
J. Michael Bishop UCSF, Professor Emeritus of Microbiology and Immunology, 1989 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine
Eric Kandel Columbia University, University Professor, 2000 Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine
Martin Chalfie Columbia University, University Professor, 2008 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
George F. Smoot University of California at Berkeley, Professor of Physics, Director, 2006 Nobel Laureate in Physics
David J. Weinland, 2012 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Dudley Herschbach Harvard, 1986 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, Emeritus Prof. of Chemistry, 1986 Chemistry Nobel Laureate
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr Princeton University, James S McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Physics, Emeritus, 1993 Nobel Laureate in Physics
H. Robert Horvitz MIT, Professor of Biology, 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine, 2002 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine
Serge Haroche Collège de France, Paris, Professor Emeritus, Nobel Prize in Physics 2012, 2012 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji 1997 Physics Nobel Laureate, Professor of Physics
John C. Mather, Senior Astrophyisicst, 2006 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Stephen HawkingDirector of research at Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge, 2012 Fundamental Physics Prize Laureate for his work on quantum gravity
Edward Witten Institute for Advanced Study, Professor of Physics, 1990 Fields Medalist, U.S. National Medal of Science, Kyoto Prize, Breakthrough Prize, NAS member
Sir Michael Atiyah Edinburgh University & Trinity College Cambridge, Professor of Mathematics, 1966 Fields Medalist
Curtis T. McMullen Harvard University, Cabot Professor of Mathematics, 1998 Fields Medalist, NAS Member
Charles D. Fergusson, physicist, President of the Federation of American Scientists
David Wright, physicist, Union of Concerned Scientists Global Security Program Co-Director and Senior Scientist
Lisbeth Gronlund, physicist, Union of Concerned Scientists Co-Director & Senior Scientist
Max Tegmark, MIT, Professor of Physics, President of Future of Life Institute, APS Fellow
Lawrence M. Krauss Arizona State University, Foundation professor, Chair of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists’ Board of Sponsors, APS & AAAS Fellow, winner national science board public service award & Julius Lilienfeld Prize
Lisa Randall Harvard University, Professor of Physics, Fellow of NAS, AAAS, APS
Freeman Dyson Institute for Advanced Studies, Professor Emeritus of Physics, Wolf Prize Laureate, NAS member
Leona Samson, MIT, Professor of Biology & Biologiocal Engineering, AAAS & NAM
Christof Koch, Chief Scientific Officer, Allen Institute for Brain Science, AAAS Fellow
Nancy Kanwisher, MIT, Professor of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, AAAS & NAS Fellow
Scott Kemp MIT, Associate Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering at MIT, and director of the MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Security and Policy, Director of the MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Security and Policy
Owen Brian Toon University of Colorado Boulder, Professor of Atmospheric Science, Rossby Medal American Meteorological Society, Revelle Medal American Geophysical Society, Leo Szilard American Physical Society, Fellow American Geophysical Union, Fellow American Meteorological Society,
Alan Robock Rutgers University, Distinguished Professor of Climate Science, Fellow of American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, and American Association for the Advancement of Science
Karen Hallberg Balseiro Institute and Bariloche Atomic Center, Argentina; Council member, Pugwash Conferences for Science and World Affairs., Professor of Physics, Guggenheim Fellow
Martin Rees Cambridge University, UK Astronomer Royal and House of Lords, Former President, Royal Society
Bo-Sture Skagerstam Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and technology, Trondheim, Norway, Professor of Physics, Elected Member of the Royal Norwegian Society of Science (DKNVS), Trondheim, Norway,
Jeffrey Dean Google, Inc., Google Senior Fellow, Member of U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, winner of ACM Prize in Computing
Bernhard Schölkopf Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Director, Member, German Academy of Sciences (Leopoldina)
The full list of signatories is available here: https://futureoflife.org/nuclear-open-letter/